Mediterranean Sea Bordering Countries: Map and Key Facts

The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea bordered by 22 countries from three continents. It is surrounded by:

  • Africa to the south
  • Asia to the east
  • Europe to the north and west.

Mediterranean Sea Bordering Countries Map

The Mediterranean Region holds great importance from the UPSC exam perspective as several questions have been asked from this region.

UPSC aspirants are encouraged to prepare this region thoroughly and this article offers key insights into all the important points that you need to study.

List of Countries Bordering the Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is bordered by 22 countries and one territory (Gibraltar – a British Overseas Territory) spanning across Europe, Africa, and Asia.

List of countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea:

  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Tunisia
  • Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Türkiye
  • Cyprus
  • Syria
  • Lebanon
  • Israel
  • Palestine (Gaza Strip)
  • Spain
  • France
  • Monaco
  • Italy
  • Malta
  • Slovenia
  • Croatia
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Montenegro
  • Albania
  • Greece

Additionally, Gibraltar, which is a British Overseas Territory also touches the Mediterranean Sea in the southern part of Spain. It lies near the Strait of Gibraltar which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the North Atlantic Ocean.

UPSC aspirants are also encouraged to learn continent-wise countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Here is a table you can refer to:

AfricaEgypt**, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco
EuropeSpain, France, Monaco, Italy, Malta, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Gibraltar## (a British Overseas Territory)
AsiaTürkiye**, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Gaza Strip (Palestine)
  • ** A small part of Egypt (the Sinai Peninsula) lies in the continent of Asia as well. Similarly, A small part of Türkiye (East Thrace) lies in the continent of Europe.
  • ## Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory.

Important Points to Remember

  • In the UPSC exam, the number of countries may not be asked as there is some ambiguity due to territorial disputes in certain areas. But questions have been and can be asked about the countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Apart from the Mediterranean Sea, you should also know the countries that border the important marginal seas (local seas) within the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Alboran Sea, Ligurian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, Sea of Crete, and Sea of Marmara are all part of the Mediterranean Sea. In total, there are 15 marginal seas of the Mediterranean Sea. The Black Sea, however, is a different sea.
  • Bordering Countries of some important marginal seas are given below:
    • Alboran Sea: Morocco, Algeria, and Spain. (Also includes the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar)
    • Ligurian Sea: Italy, France, and Monaco
    • Tyrrhenian Sea: Italy and France
    • Ionian Sea: Italy, Greece, and Albania
    • Adriatic Sea: Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Albania
    • Aegean Sea: Greece and Türkiye
  • The Dardanelles Strait and the Bosphorus Strait are together known as the Turkish Straits. These straits are on opposite ends of the Sea of Marmara and connect the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea. From north to south: Black Sea – Bosphorus Strait – Sea of Marmara – Dardanelles Strait – Aegean Sea.
  • The Levant, historically, the region along the eastern Mediterranean shores, roughly corresponds to modern-day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and some other adjacent areas of West Asia.
  • The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
  • Remember the major islands of different countries in the Mediterranean Sea (Check the map given above). Some important ones are:
    • Sicily (Italy)
    • Sardinia (Italy)
    • Corsica (France)
    • Balearic Islands (Spain)
    • Crete (Greece)
  • Italy’s Sicily island is the largest in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Malta and Cyprus are two island countries lying in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • River Nile, the longest river in the world, drains into this sea.
  • Rhone, Po, Tiber, and Drin-Bojana are some other important rivers that drain into the Mediterranean Sea.

In addition to the points mentioned above, it is also crucial that you follow important current affairs related to this region. Furthermore, you may find it beneficial to refer to the article ‘How to Study Maps for UPSC‘ to learn the most effective ways to prepare maps-based questions.

Picture of Subodh Sharma

Subodh Sharma

I am Subodh Sharma, an IIT Roorkee graduate, committed to assisting UPSC aspirants in their map-based preparation journey. Having dedicated over four years to preparing for the UPSC examinations myself, I deeply understand the challenges and frustrations aspirants face in finding quality maps-based content. The years of preparation have given me...

>>Click Here to Read More

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *